The League of Nations
League of Nations was established in 1919 at Versailles Peace and the core aim of the international organization was to promote peace in the world. Member nations of the organizations pledged to manage disputes with peace and diplomacy with mutual understanding and political freedom. The organization was a fulfillment of appeal of U.S. President, Woodrow Wilson to maintain collective security. However, it did not prove to be effective because U.S. and Soviet Union had abstained from the process and thus the weak enforcement of the league, tussle of powerful members and lack of political will could not prevent World War II. Nonetheless, it kept advancing the objectives of international humanitarianism in the war time. The league promoted assistance of the refugees, took health initiatives, combated drugs, human trafficking and prostitution that eventually formed the organizations like UNICEF, WHO, etc. Another achievement of the league was the development of Hague system to control the global conflicts through peaceful settlements. Present United Nations Organization is a sequel of the League of Nations that laid more emphasis on retaining collective security by engaging giant military states.
The members of the league were originally the victorious allies of the First World War except the U.S. and mostly the neutral nations. Later, Bulgaria, Austria, Germany, Hungry, Turkey, Mexico and the USSR became its members. An international secretariat was made and the Headquarter was located at Geneva.
The value of the league was proved in the beginning when it resolved the Swedish-Finnish dispute over Aland Island in 1920. The league rescued Austria from economic upheaval in 1922, settled the security problems of Albania, and many more. The league built international programs for labor rights and extended the scope of organization to help the poor nations.
The League did not have its own armed forced and it greatly depended upon the Britain to enforce the resolutions or to impose economic sanctions. But the great powers of the globe remained reluctant to do so and the economic sanctions could hurt members of the organization as well which restrained them to implement any action. The League proved its incapability to prevent the aggressiveness of Axis powers in 1930s. The problems started when it came to accept the political influence of the nations. Like Poland had not accepted the decision of the league in the dispute of Vilnius. The League also failed to take action at invasion of Manchuria by Japan in 1931.
The league remained in action for 27 years and it formed many international organizations. The major aim of the league was to halt the countries from war that could not be attained and ultimately The League of nations was replaced by the UNO.